Capture and analyze devices
Capture sample data with
-S unknown. Note down the expected measurement values from a read-out or head unit. Check the spectrogram by dropping samples on https://triq.org/iqs/ (it should look "busy" like this) Try analyzing each sample with
rtl_433 -A gfile.cu8 to see if there is some real data. Use the analyzer hints to create a plausible
-X decoder and demod the data codes. Then upload some zipped samples to an issue and post a description and tabled codes and values per sample file.
Verify a transmission
rtl_433 processes radio data in multiple stages. You can follow the stages and verify the data at each point.
First a radio data packet is found and framed.
Get on overview of the band. Check if the transmission is visible and in the expected frequency range. Use CubicSDR, Gqrx, SigDigger, SDR#, SDRangel or similar SDR UIs to verify you receice a signal. If you have the SDR receiver on a headless machine try
rtl_tcp to transport data to a GUI.
A quick substitute for an SDR UI is to record a sample, e.g.
-w file_433.92M_250k.cu8 -T 60 (adjust for the actual frequency and sample rate). Now drop that .cu8 sample file on https://triq.org/pdv/ to visually inspect the spectrogram (a sideways view of the common SDR waterfalls).
Do not plug the receiver directly in a USB port, avoid noise and use a short USB cable.
Grab a sample
Note the frequency, pick a frequency a little off, e.g 50k above or below. Then grab the signal with rtl_433, e.g.
rtl_433 -f 433.92M -S unknown Visually verify the samples in https://triq.org/iqs
The modes for the sample grabber are
-S all: grab all frames found
-S unknown: grab frames that are not decoded by any decoder
-S known: grab frames successfully decoded by some decoder
The band covered is equal to the sample rate. At the default
250k sample rate that's
433.67 MHz to
434.17 MHz. For the
868M default sample rate of
867.5 MHz to
868.5 MHz. For the
868M it's like good to pick
868.3M for a band of
867.8 MHz to
To get a clean signal remove the receiver antenna and place the device at 10cm to the receiver, that mostly isolates the transmissions.
Analyze the data packet
Then next stage is demodulation of OOK or FSK data. A run of pulse/gap (OOK) or mark/space (FSK) timings is generated by the demod. Run
rtl_433 -A SAMPLE.cu8 to get an overview of the timings, or
rtl_433 -w OOK:- SAMPLE.cu8 to see the raw data. Write the pulses to a file with
rtl_433 -w SAMPLE.ook SAMPLE.cu8 and visualize the file with https://triq.org/pdv
You need to give the sample rate if it's not 250k, look at the file name, e.g. use
rtl_433 -s 1000k -A SAMPLE_1000k.cu8
For advanced analysis you can also try out SigRok's Pulseview with
rtl_433 -W out.sr SAMPLE.cu8.
Be sure to also try with higher sensitivity:
-Y autolevel -Y magest -M noise -M level
Try different sample rates, for 433M try
-s 1024k, for 868M try
-s 250k or
Try different demods, for 433M try
-Y minmax, for 868M try
Build a flex decoder
Now build a flex decoder to slice the data into bits. Use the suggestion or make a guess based on the analyzed pulse data on the coding.
Document data codes
The last stage is the protocol decoding from the bit data. Build a table of codes and the expected sensor values to identify where the bytes are and what is contained. Preferably put the codes and annotations in a BitBench.
- capture samples not decoded by rtl_433
rtl_433 -S unknown
- capture samples of every received frame
rtl_433 -S all
- anaylze a capture to get an overview of the timings
rtl_433 -A SAMPLE.cu8
- show the raw data pulse data from a captured sample
rtl_433 -w OOK:- SAMPLE.cu8
- convert pulse data from a capture to OOK file
rtl_433 -w SAMPLE.ook SAMPLE.cu8
- try to read codes from a captured sample
rtl_433 -X '...' SAMPLE.cu8
- open a captured sample in SigRok Pulseview
rtl_433 -W SAMPLE.sr SAMPLE.cu8